Day 9: Cover Important Topics


Static Keyword

Static methods can be called without creating the class of the object. Basically creating class properties of methods with static makes them accessible without instantiation of the class.

NOTE: Before PHP 8.0.0, calling non-static methods statically was deprecated

We cannot access static properties as non-static means by creating their objects.

public static $static_name = 'foo';

Class Abstraction

PHP has abstract classes and methods. Classes defined as abstract cannot be instantiated, and any class that contains at least one abstract method must also be abstract. Methods defined as abstracts simply declare the method’s signature; they cannot define the implementation.

abstract class AbstractClass
    // Our abstract method only needs to define the required arguments
    abstract protected function prefixName($name);


class ConcreteClass extends AbstractClass

    // Our child class may define optional arguments not in the parent's signature
    public function prefixName($name, $separator = ".") {
        if ($name == "Pacman") {
            $prefix = "Mr";
        } elseif ($name == "Pacwoman") {
            $prefix = "Mrs";
        } else {
            $prefix = "";
        return "{$prefix}{$separator} {$name}";

$class = new ConcreteClass;
echo $class->prefixName("Pacman"), "\n";
echo $class->prefixName("Pacwoman"), "\n";
  1. Namespaces: Structuring Your Code

Namespaces provide a way to encapsulate code and prevent naming conflicts. They are particularly useful in larger projects where multiple developers contribute. Let’s explore how to use namespaces effectively with an example:

// Define a namespace
namespace MyApp;

class MyClass {
    public function __construct() {
        echo "Class instantiated from namespace MyApp";

// Instantiate the class
$obj = new MyClass(); // Outputs: Class instantiated from namespace MyApp

In this example, MyClass is part of the MyApp namespace. By organizing code in namespaces, you can avoid clashes with classes or functions in other parts of your project.

  1. Autoloading: Simplifying Class Loading

Autoloading eliminates the need to include class files manually. Instead, it dynamically loads the necessary files when a class is instantiated. Composer, the PHP dependency manager, simplifies autoloading through the composer.json file.

    "autoload": {
        "psr-4": {
            "MyApp\\": "src/"

With this configuration, classes in the MyApp namespace will be autoloaded from the src directory. This improves code organization and reduces the risk of including unnecessary files.

  1. File Handling: Working with Files and Directories

PHP offers robust functions for file and directory manipulation. Let’s look at a simple example that reads a file:

// Read content from a file
$fileContent = file_get_contents('example.txt');

// Display the content
echo $fileContent;

This snippet reads the contents of the file example.txt into the $fileContent variable. PHP provides various functions for tasks like writing to files, deleting files, and handling directories.

  1. Include and Require: Managing Dependencies

Include and require statements are used to include external files in your PHP script. The difference lies in how they handle failures. include generates a warning and continues execution, while require produces a fatal error and halts execution.

// Include a file
include 'config.php';

// Require a file
require 'functions.php';

By strategically using include and require, you can manage dependencies and structure your code for better readability and maintainability.


  1. Modules: Enhancing Code Modularity

JavaScript modules allow developers to organize code into separate files, making it easier to manage and understand. Let’s explore how to use modules with an example:

// File: mathOperations.js
export function add(a, b) {
    return a + b;

// File: main.js
import { add } from './mathOperations';

const result = add(5, 3);
console.log(result); // Outputs: 8

In this example, the mathOperations.js file exports a function (add), and the main.js file imports and utilizes it. This modular approach improves code organization and reusability.

  1. File Organization: Structuring Your Project

Effective file organization is crucial for maintaining a clean and understandable codebase. Consider adopting a structure that separates concerns and follows best practices.

  1. Package Management: Streamlining Dependencies

Package managers like npm (Node Package Manager) simplify the process of installing, updating, and managing dependencies in JavaScript projects. The package.json file is central to this process:

With a well-maintained package.json file, you can easily share and reproduce your project’s dependencies.

  1. Async/Await: Handling Asynchronous Operations

JavaScript often deals with asynchronous operations, and the introduction of async/await syntax simplifies asynchronous code. Here’s a quick example:

async function fetchData() {
    try {
        const response = await fetch('');
        const data = await response.json();
    } catch (error) {
        console.error('Error fetching data:', error);


async/await makes asynchronous code more readable and manageable, enhancing the overall maintainability of your JavaScript projects.

“Good Work. Good People.”

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