Day 43: Primary Menus, Sticky Posts, Custom Headers, and Template Parts

Primary Menus:

  1. Definition: Primary menus, also known as navigation menus, are the main navigation elements displayed prominently on a website’s header or sidebar. They provide users with easy access to key sections or pages of the site.
  2. Creation: WordPress allows developers to create and manage primary menus through the “Appearance” > “Menus” section in the admin dashboard. Here, developers can add, remove, and rearrange menu items, assign menu locations, and customize menu settings.
  3. Customization: Primary menus can be customized to match the theme’s design and branding. Developers can specify menu styles, add dropdowns for submenus, incorporate icons or images for visual appeal, and implement responsive design for mobile-friendly navigation.

Adding New Menu Locations:

  1. Definition: Menu locations are predefined areas within a WordPress theme where primary menus can be displayed. Common menu locations include the header, footer, sidebar, and mobile menu.
  2. Creation: Developers can add new menu locations to a theme by registering them using the register_nav_menus() function in the theme’s functions.php file. This allows for greater flexibility in designing and organizing navigation menus according to specific layout requirements.
  3. Usage: Adding new menu locations enables developers to create custom navigation structures tailored to the theme’s design and content organization. It also allows for the creation of multiple menus to serve different purposes or user groups.
// Register Custom Navigation Menus.
function custom_theme_register_menus() {
    $locations = array(
        'primary_menu'   => esc_html__( 'Primary Menu', 'text-domain' ),
        'footer_menu'    => esc_html__( 'Footer Menu', 'text-domain' ),
        'sidebar_menu'   => esc_html__( 'Sidebar Menu', 'text-domain' ),
    register_nav_menus( $locations );
add_action( 'init', 'custom_theme_register_menus' );

Sticky Posts:

  1. Definition: Sticky posts are blog posts that are “stuck” to the top of the blog’s front page, ensuring they remain visible even as newer posts are published. They provide a way to highlight important or featured content to users.
  2. Usage: To make a post sticky, developers can simply check the “Stick to the top of the blog” option when editing the post. Sticky posts are typically displayed differently from regular posts, often with a distinct styling or layout to differentiate them.

Theme Supports:

  1. Definition: Theme supports are features or functionalities that a WordPress theme declares support for, such as custom headers, post formats, featured images, and more.
  2. Declaration: Developers can declare theme supports by using the add_theme_support() function in the theme’s functions.php file. This enables WordPress to enable or disable certain features based on the theme’s capabilities.

Custom Headers:

  1. Definition: Custom headers allow developers to add personalized header images or banners to their WordPress themes, providing visual branding and identity to the site.
  2. Implementation: Developers can create custom header functionality by declaring support for custom headers using the add_theme_support('custom-header') function. They can then specify header dimensions, default images, and other settings in the theme’s customizer or options panel.

Template Parts:

  1. Definition: Template parts are reusable sections of code that can be included in multiple template files within a WordPress theme. They facilitate code organization, modularity, and maintainability.
  2. Creation: Developers can create template parts by extracting common sections of code from template files and saving them as separate PHP files in the theme’s directory. These template parts can then be included using the get_template_part() function within other template files.


  1. Primary Menus vs. Custom Menus:
  • Primary Menus: Core navigation elements are displayed prominently on the site.
  • Custom Menus: Additional navigation structures tailored to specific requirements or user groups.
  1. Sticky Posts vs. Featured Posts:
  • Sticky Posts: Pinned to the top of the blog’s front page, ensuring visibility.
  • Featured Posts: Highlighted or promoted within specific sections or widgets on the site.
// Query sticky posts
$sticky_posts = get_option( 'sticky_posts' );

// Check if there are sticky posts
if ( $sticky_posts ) {
    $args = array(
        'post__in'            => $sticky_posts,
        'ignore_sticky_posts' => 1,
        // Add additional query parameters as needed

    $sticky_query = new WP_Query( $args );

    // Output sticky posts
    if ( $sticky_query->have_posts() ) {
        while ( $sticky_query->have_posts() ) {
            // Output code for displaying sticky posts here

// Query featured posts
$args_featured = array(
    'meta_query' => array(
            'key'     => 'featured_post', // Assuming you have a custom field named 'featured_post'
            'value'   => '1', // Value indicating the post is featured
            'compare' => '=',
        // Add additional meta_query parameters as needed
    // Add additional query parameters as needed

$featured_query = new WP_Query( $args_featured );

// Output featured posts
if ( $featured_query->have_posts() ) {
    while ( $featured_query->have_posts() ) {
        // Output code for displaying featured posts here

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